My ships can enter any adjacent seazone I choose right?
Can I sortee more US fighters than I could feasibly land on my two Aircraft carriers, thinking, I may lose some in the fray, or even choose to take some hits with them?
No. There must be some possible way for EACH fighter to land. Even if it is rather unlikely that a fighter would be able to land, that’s fine, it just has to be possible.
For example, in the scenario you describe you could attack the island of Japan with, say, 2 fighters, planning to land them on a carrier moving into sz62 (sea of Japan). Even if Japan has 10 battleships sitting there, you are allowed to assume the lone carrier will win the battle so that the fighters have a place to land, even though this scenario is extremely unlikely. The fighter mission is effectively a suicide run, since you “know” the carrier will not survive, but its not against the rules since its at least possible (in terms of the rules) for it to be there in the non-combat phase.
It would not be permissible, however, to send a third fighter to attack Japan, since there is no possible way that fighter could land, regardless of what happens during combat.