One option is to just accept some attrition in your transport fleet – you start with 5 transports, and you usually build 2 more, so if you lose one of them to a British sub, life goes on. Don’t attack the British Indian fleet, use the fighters from your western carrier group to help with the attack on the Phillipines, and send your cruiser and western carrier to guard your transport off the East Indies. Your Borneo transport is toast, but that’s small potatoes in the grand scheme of things.
Another option is to attack the British fleet, send your destroyer west to defend your western carrier group, attack the Pearl Harbor BB with 3 fighters, and attack the San Diego DD/TT with only 1 fighter. 1 fighter vs. 1 DD is risky, but if you lose that battle, oh well. It’s still positive expected utility. If you want something more conservative, you can attack Pearl Harbor with 4 fighters and skip the attack on San Diego altogether. Note that you can’t actually kill the British sub on turn 1 (you’re not in range with your DD) so you will still lose a transport this way. You can’t avoid losing a transport to a sub bid without radically scaling back your opening attack.