Apologies if this is answered elsewhere, looked for a while but couldn’t find it.
Submarines attack aircraft carrier with planes but no defensive destroyer
Yes, but since they cannot be hit by submarines, nor hit submarines, they do nothing but fly around overhead looking for a place to land. (1 Movement point given free, to find a safe landing area.)
Submarines attack ships off an island with potentially scambling planes but no defending destroyer
- can the airplanes scramble and defend without a destroyer?
Yes, but since they cannot be hit by submarines, nor hit submarines, they do nothing but fly around overhead and land back on their island.
Submarines solely escorting transports, airplanes attack subs and transports
- are the transports just dead because the subs cant defend against planes and the planes can’t attack the subs?
Yes, the fighters shoot up the transports and go home, the submarines cannot participate int the battle.
Submarines and other ships attacking ships off an island with potentially scrambling planes but no defending destroyer
- can hits from defending planes be allocated to subs even without a defending destroyer?
No, there is no possible method for a plane to hit a submarine without a destroyer present to tell them where the submarine is.
Likewise, no matter what you do, you cannot hit planes with a submarine. So, theoretically, if the attacker chose to lose all his surface ships, you had no destroyer and you kept your planes, the submarines would be able to continue shooting at your ships and your planes could do nothing.
I have used this countless times to sink Carriers and Battleships out from under the Naval Air Corps.