Flashcards in Clinical Epidemiology 2 - Frequency Deck (20)

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1

## Fraction of a group of people possessing a clinical condition or outcome at a given point in time

### Prevalence

2

## Point vs Period Prevalence

###
Point - single point in time

Period - defined period

3

## Fraction of a group of people initially free from outcome of interest that develops condition over given point in time (new cases)

### Incidence

4

## Formula for incidence

### New cases in period of time / Susceptible people without disease at beginning of period

5

## Formula for prevalence

### Existing cases at defined time / Population (All people, cases and non-cases)

6

## Type of study used to measure incidence

### Cohort Study

7

## Type of study used to measure prevalence

### Cross-Sectional Study

8

## Relationship between duration of disease, prevalence, and incidence

###
Prevalence/Incidence = Duration (steady state)

Prevalence = Incidence x Duration

In words: Higher duration = more likely to be caught by prevalence study

9

## Proportion of people having a disease who die from it

### Case fatality rate

10

## Proportion of people having a disease who survive it

### Survival Rate

11

## Formula for infant mortality rate

###
Number of deaths in year of children <1 yr

over

Number of live births in the same year

12

## Formula for perinatal mortality rate

### Number of stillbirths and deaths in first week of life per 1000 livebirths

13

## Formula Maternal Mortality Rate

###
Number of maternal deaths related to childbirth in a given year

over

Number of live births in the same population during same year

14

## TRUE OR FALSE: Infant mortality rate and maternal mortality rate are approximations of incidence?

### TRUE

15

## Approach to studying incidence in a dynamic population

###
Incidence Density (Person Years)

Take into account time each person is part of the population/at risk

16

## In measuring rates for cervical cancer - what is the appropriate denominator?

### Women who are susceptible (with cervix, no hysterectomy done)

17

## A concentration of new cases in time

### Epidemic

18

## A widespread disease globally

### Pandemic

19

## A disease limited to certain places

### Endemic

20