Here are some of the rules I liked that are different:
Naval spotting - makes sense, maybe add +1 to spotting roll if sub or plane present.
Research - I’m assuming those are free rolls.
AAA - firing before each round. At 5 planes seems a bit steep.
Cruiser (AA) - That’s a house rule I already use. Makes them a little more useful.
Railroads - I’ve seen and used them, but with a limit to units moved. But since your limiting it to 2 spaces.
Research Focus - A research tech for your research roll. Brilliant!
Heavy transports - Another one in use.
Sonar - Interesting concept.
Not sure on the “Dodge” concept. Thanks for the listing of your rules.